Polish President Andrzej Duda laid a wreath on May 16 at the base of a statue memorializing the World War II massacre of Polish soldiers, while protestors in the background, despite being restrained by security forces and the U.S. Secret Service, shouted “Shame! Shame!” in opposition to the statue’s pending removal from Exchange Place.The memorial commemorates the 1940 Soviet murder of 22,000 Polish officers in Katyn Forest in the western Soviet Union. Although Duda was in the United States on official United Nations business, he met briefly at the site with Jersey City Mayor Steven Fulop in an attempt to play down what has become an international conflict. Created by Polish-American monument sculptor Andrzej Pitynski, the statue was moved to Exchange Place in 1991. Jersey City, along with officials of the Exchange Place Special Improvement District, have proposed moving the statue to a new location one block away on York Street. The city intends to create a park at the statue’s current location.While this started out as a local issue, the incident escalated into an international conflict when Fulop exchanged angry Tweets with the head of the Polish Senate, in which Fulop accused the senate leader of being a Holocaust denier. Click here for more.In May and June, college graduates move to Hoboken to start a job, and families move to town before the new school year. Last week, several Hoboken residents offered tips to recent grads and young families who are starting life in the mile-square city.Their tips covered restaurants, bars for different age groups, getting a dog, using public transportation, and even joining a gym or sports league.Resident of two years Michelle Ciancimino, 24, suggested new residents join a local gym to meet their neighbors. She goes to a CrossFit gym and it’s a “tight knit community,” she said.CrossFit is a high-intensity fitness program that incorporates elements from several sports and types of exercise.Similarly, Megan Pijanowski, 25, suggested joining one of the adult athletic leagues such a ZogSports. (www.zogsports.com). Through ZogSports, participants can play basketball, hockey, dodge ball, touch football, and volleyball with other adults. Click here for more.The Act Now Foundation, a non-profit dedicated to raising awareness about Alzheimer’s disease in New Jersey, opened its third dementia center on the Hudson Hills Senior Living campus on May 16. The group had opened its first such operation in Jersey City in 2015, and another one in Bergen County followed. The North Bergen location will serve as its official headquarters, officials say. It will offer services for Alzheimer’s patients such as cognitive rehabilitation, music and art therapy, and caregiver training. Ten people will be staffed at the center full time, including interns, regular Act Now staff, and certified dementia professionals. Different organizations have also sponsored rooms in the center. United Healthcare is sponsoring an education room that will feature training for professionals and caregivers on how to help Alzheimer’s patients. Click here for more.
Mr. Mature America 2018 Bill Quain, of Ocean City, who is blind, raises his arms triumphantly while celebrating his finish in the OCNJ Half Marathon. By Maddy VitaleBill Quain threw his hands up in victory as he crossed the finish line at the OCNJ Half Marathon Sunday that ended at the Ocean City Music Pier.In what would already be a difficult race for even the most accomplished of runners, Quain, 66, of Ocean City, did it blind.The reigning Mr. Mature America ran 13 miles with his sister, Jeannine Norris, by his side, acting as his guide.“She slowed down for me and I sped up a bit for her,” Quain said. “It was just a great race. The runners were fantastic. Everyone was so nice.”Bill Quain’s sister, Jeannine Norris, acted as his race guide.There was one glitch, however.Quain and his wife, Jeanne, had to figure out where they would meet up, so he could don his crown and wear his sash at the end of the race.“I was not crossing that finish line without my crown,” Bill Quain said with a laugh.So, they met up.“I rode my bike and we met at 10th Street,” Jeanne Quain said of the transfer of the coveted pageant regalia.Lisa Rumer, the race director, said at the start of the race that she learned of Quain being in the race.“I was so excited to hear that Bill was in the race,” she said. “I met him this morning. Every race needs a super star.”Sacena Veasey, 34, of Leesburg in Cumberland County, crosses the finish line in the half marathon.The event also included a 10-mile non-competitive walk/run and a 5-kilometer race. Sunday morning, Rumer said there were 1,900 people registered to participate.The increasingly popular event showcases Ocean City’s Boardwalk, downtown and neighborhoods.Ocean City’s Primary School teacher, Carrie Merritt, who is also the Cape May County Teacher of the Year, is on the race committee and helped Rumer and the other volunteers with the well-organized race.“It is really crazy how it has grown over the years,” Merritt noted, as she watched the runners and urged them on. “This year is special because we were chosen as the 50 States Half Marathon Club.”She said 45 states were represented in Sunday’s race. This year the scene on the medals was the Ocean City skyline. “We say the sky is the limit,” Merritt said.Race directors Carrie Merritt and Lisa Rumer say the race continues to grow.The public came out to cheer for the runners. Ocean City mascot Martin Z. Mollusk and the Ocean City High School Red Raider mascot were also on hand. Red Raiders cheerleaders cheered on the runners. Music seemed to pump up the crowd and the runners along the course.For Quain, it wasn’t so much about his time, although it didn’t hurt that he bested the times in his practices. It has been years since he did a half marathon, 32 to be exact, he said.Quain had a secret to his great race, he joked: “I had a stash of candy corns and Swedish fish in my pocket.”Jeanne Quain added that he had a protein “goo” he was supposed to eat but he wouldn’t have any part of it.Bill and Jeanne Quain are all smiles after the half marathon.But something made it all work out, whether it was all of the runs along the Boardwalk with his niece, Quinn Norris, or the tireless determination to do something that others say would be, or should be, impossible, or just a lot of heart.Maybe it is all of those things.When Quain crossed the finish line, he sipped a bottle of water, smiled and said, “I feel great. I think I will do another lap.”For a complete breakdown of the race results visit www.runtheday.com.
The partnership is an extension of the successful ‘earn, learn and return’ scheme, which has already seen Indian nurses benefit from NHS work experience.Registered nurses from Jamaica will undertake work placements in the UK, facilitated by Health Education England, in areas such as emergency medicine and intensive care. They will go back to Jamaica to share their new skills, knowledge and experience with their own healthcare system.In return, NHS staff will be given the opportunity to travel to Jamaica to share their expertise with the Jamaican health service and help them to improve their care.The aim of the scheme is to support the Jamaican government in improving the capability and capacity of their nursing workforce, as well as establish a network of professionals from both countries who will continue to share learning and knowledge beyond the scheme itself.Minister of State for Health Stephen Barclay said: This will also form part of the NHS’s commitment to supporting its staff to develop and progress their careers. Offering global health placements within training programmes or as part of continual professional development has shown to have a positive impact on recruitment and retention of staff.All nurses who come to work for the NHS will be required to meet the standards of the Nursing and Midwifery Council.The UK government also recently announced a 25% increase in UK nursing degree training places. The NHS is blazing a trail in healthcare across the world and it is testament to the skills and expertise of our dedicated nurses that other countries are vying for their knowledge to help improve their own services. I’m delighted that we’re partnering with Jamaica in this scheme, which will build on our existing collaboration with India, and further demonstrates the Government’s commitment to forging new international relationships in preparation for the UK to leave the European Union.
If you are thinking about following in your grandmother’s footsteps to preserve food this summer, start preparing now by gathering your equipment and supplies. The proper tools should be kept in good condition to ensure safe, high quality, home-canned food.If you need to purchase equipment, there are two types of canners to consider: boiling water canners and pressure canners.A boiling water canner is used for canning acidic or acidified foods like most fruits, pickles, jams and jellies. Boiling water canners cost between $30 and $100, or they can be assembled at home using a large stockpot, a secure lid and a rack to keep jars off the bottom of the pot.A pressure canner is essential for canning low-acid foods such as vegetables, meats, fish and poultry. Temperatures inside pressure canners reach higher than boiling water canners — around 240 degrees Fahrenheit or higher compared to around 212 degrees Fahrenheit. In following the tested processes, canning at higher temperatures is necessary to kill the toxins that produce spores of the bacteria Clostridium botulinum. If these spores are not killed, they can grow out and produce a deadly toxin, or poison, in low-acid foods stored at room temperature.Pressure canners are available in two types: a dial-gauge canner or a weighted-gauge canner. Most steps in managing the pressure canning process are the same, but the two styles of canners have different types of gauges to indicate the pressure inside the canner. Expect to spend $100 to $150 or more on a pressure canner.If you use a dial-gauge canner, it’s important to have the gauge tested for accuracy when the gauge is dropped or damaged and before each canning season. It isn’t as easy as it used to be to get gauges tested. Try a local hardware store or your local University of Georgia Cooperative Extension agent, although not all offices continue to provide this service.For either type of canner, make sure that the rubber gasket is flexible and soft. If it is brittle, sticky or cracked, replace it with a new gasket. Also check that any openings, like vent ports, are completely clean and open.You’ll also need jars, lids and ring bands for canning. When getting started, new jars are a worthwhile investment, as opposed to purchasing used jars from a yard sale or flea market, because very old jars may break under pressure and heat. Mason-type jars of standard sizes — half-pint, pint and quart — are recommended for the tested processes. These jars are available for purchase from science-based sources such as the U.S. Department of Agriculture and land-grant universities like UGA.Make sure the jars are manufactured and sold for canning purposes; not all glass and Mason jars are tempered to prevent breakage due to the extreme heat and temperature swings of the canning process.When you begin to can your harvest, follow the manufacturer’s advice for preparing the jars and lids. In addition to standard cooking utensils like cutting boards and bowls, you will also want to have a jar funnel, jar lifter, lid wand, headspace tool and bubble freer handy for canning.If you choose to freeze your harvest, use packaging such as plastic bags or rigid containers that are intended for freezer storage of foods. Not all plastics are the same, and some materials will not hold up to freezer temperatures and protect your goodies from damaging air and mixtures of odors.A final must for canning is reliable, up-to-date canning and other food preservation instructions. Specific kitchen equipment or ingredients may also be needed to successfully follow directions as they are written for food preservation. In the case of canning in particular, very significant food safety risks are associated with following unsound recommendations.The sixth edition of the popular UGA Extension food preservation book, “So Easy to Preserve,” can be ordered through setp.uga.edu for $18. Check with your local UGA Extension office too, as some offices keep the book in stock. Reliable, up-to-date canning instructions can also be found on the National Center for Home Food Preservation’s website at nchfp.uga.edu.
Margareta Wahlström, United Nations Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Disaster Risk Reduction, will discuss actions against natural disasters with Panamanian authorities, an official source reported. The UN office in Panama said that Ban Ki-moon’s representative arrived for a two-day visit on January 17. Among other activities, Wahlström will meet Panamanian Foreign Affairs Minister Rómulo Roux. The visit is intended to “reinforce the urgent call” of nations that signed the declaration of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, Rio+20, to implement the framework for action to help reduce the risk of disasters, a key element to achieve sustainable development in Latin America and the Caribbean, according to the UN. By Dialogo January 17, 2013
Operationally, everything remains the same as before, adds Habjanec and points out that Integrated Business Systems Ltd. remains an independent company, the employees you work with are still in the same jobs and look forward to working with you. ” But as part of the group we will be stronger in expanding to other markets. We will have more power to accelerate the development of existing and new products to provide you with even better service. Payten became the majority owner of Remaris in order to further develop and expand our services together in countries where Payten operates throughout Europe and beyond. ”Concludes Habjanec. In line with the strategy to provide service companies, especially in the HoReCA segment, with a complete offer and support for payment solutions, Payten bought a 76 percent stake in Integrated Business Systems, which operates in Croatia and develops business in Bosnia and Herzegovina under the brand Remaris. “Ugostiteljima želimo omogućiti da cjelokupnu brigu o svim rješenjima za plaćanje mogu prepustiti nama. Oni se tako mogu bolje posvetiti svome primarnom poslu, a mi im nudimo cijeli eko sustav rješenja za plaćanje kao podršku njihovom poslovanju.”, dodao je Damir Čaušević, član uprave tvrtki Remaris i Monri. The Management Board of Remaris consists of two members: Hrvoje Habjanec, the current director of the company, and Damir Čaušević, who will continue to be a member of the Management Board of Monri, a member of the Payten Group. Remaris has become part of Payten, which operates in 14 countries around the world and is focused on providing complete payment technology solutions for a range of service industries, including the HoReCA segment. The acquisition confirms Payten’s strategy to offer the best payment technology solutions globally in the service industry, Payten said. Ivan Bušić, član uprave Payten Hrvatska, istaknuo je: „Jako mi je drago što je tvrtka Remaris postala dio Paytena. Naša strategija je širiti se i globalno nuditi najbolja cjelovita tehnološka rješenja u području plaćanja za niz uslužnih grana, posebno za tvrtke iz HoReCa segmenta. “ ” We at Remaris have always had a mission to bring as many technological innovations as possible to the hospitality world. We started with the Remaris mobile application for bar owners, and continued with the first cash register managed from the Cloud, the first mass B2B system, and the latest innovation Following the desire to develop Remaris, we have become part of Payten, which offers complete technological solutions in the field of payments and employs almost 1,300 people . In Croatia, Remaris is a leader in providing complete software solutions for managing businesses and cash registers in the hospitality industry. He was the first in Croatia to introduce the SaaS business billing model and to run a catering facility in the Cloud. Its solutions are used daily in more than 3.000 locations throughout Croatia. Kompanija Payten, članica Asseco Grupe, jednog od 10 vodećih proizvođača softverske opreme u Europi, u posljednjih 18 mjeseci značajno je proširila svoje poslovanje akvizicijom niza tvrtki usmjerenih na razvoj i prodaju inovativnih tehnoloških rješenja u području plaćanja u Europi i šire. Thus, in addition to Remaris, Payten was joined by companies Sonet, koji posluje u Slovačkoj i Češkoj i nudi usluge u području tehnologije plaćanja, uključujući i softver za platne terminale (POS), zatim Mobven, a leading company in Turkey for the development of solutions in the field of mobile payment technology, Monri, koja posluje u Hrvatskoj, BiH i Srbiji te je specijalizirana za distribuciju uređaja SinglePOS trgovcima, pružajući bankama i trgovcima na malo mogućnost korištenja sustava WebPay, i Bassilichi CEE, tvrtke koja nudi usluge vezane uz POS I bankomate u Srbiji i BiH. U ožujku prošle godine Payten je postao vlasnik i tvrtke Necomplus, a Spanish multinational company which, in addition to Spain, also operates in Portugal, Andorra, Colombia, Peru and the Dominican Republic and has over 25 years of experience in customer solutions in the field of payment. Payten is present in 14 countries around the world and employs almost 1,300 people.
Media outlets and news agencies reported in April that Saudi Arabia had asked Muslims to “postpone” plans to perform the obligatory pilgrimage this year as the kingdom grapples with its COVID-19 outbreak. It has suspended umrah since March.According to data compiled by Johns Hopkins University, 33,731 confirmed COVID-19 cases had been recorded in Saudi Arabia with 219 deaths as of Friday. The Saudi government has been ramping up testing after it eased a 24-hour curfew, except in hot spots including the Islamic holy city of Mecca.While waiting for a decision from Saudi Arabia, the government has asked Indonesian pilgrims to pay their haj travel fees in full, which range from Rp 31.4 million (US$2,102) to Rp 72.3 million per pilgrim. The ministry has recorded that nearly 180,000 of around 210,000 pilgrims had paid for their scheduled journeys.The first batch of Indonesian pilgrims was scheduled to depart on June 26.Some 2.5 million faithful from around the world traveled to Saudi Arabia last year to participate in the pilgrimage.Topics : He added that the government hoped the Saudi authorities would announce a final decision before the summer break on May 13.“If the decision was made after the summer break, it would leave us with not enough time to prepare for the pilgrimage.”Nizar asserted that preparations for the haj were continuing, with ministry officials holding manasik (pilgrimage rehearsals) virtually through videos disseminated through the ministry’s official social media accounts.Read also: Govt carries on with haj prep, claiming haj ‘cancellation’ a case of lost in translation The Religious Affairs Ministry is still waiting for Saudi Arabia to announce its final decision on this year’s haj that will see millions of Muslims performing rituals in the holy city of Mecca, as the kingdom mulls a plan to put the annual tradition on hold amid the COVID-19 pandemic.The ministry’s haj and umrah (minor haj) director general, Nizar Ali, said his office had been coordinating with the haj consul of the Indonesian Consulate General in Jeddah regarding this year’s haj, initially slated to be held from July 28 to Aug. 2.“There has yet to be a decision from Saudi Arabia’s Haj and Umrah Ministry on whether this year’s pilgrimage will take place,” Nizar said on Wednesday.
The bills don’t stop after you get the keys to your house. Picture: iStock.AUSTRALIAN households spend at least $33,500 a year just to cover the average mortgage and minimum household costs.New analysis has revealed just how much average homebuyers need to fork out of their earnings every year just to meet their payments.According to finder.com.au the costs on a typical family home works out to $2798 a month or almost $650 a week.It calculated common expenses for homeowners including mortgage repayments, utility bills, water bills, council rates and building and contents insurance. It also included phone and internet expenses.More from newsNew apartments released at idyllic retirement community Samford Grove Presented by Parks and wildlife the new lust-haves post coronavirus20 hours agoThat accounted for 53 per cent of the average full-time wage after tax.According to the data, the almost $34,000 a year bill didn’t even including things such as eating.Food, car expenses, school feels and entertainment weren’t factored in. Nor were repairs or maintenance.Finder money expert Bessie Hassan, people often underestimated the costs of maintaining a home.And with many cost of living expenses going up, it could get tougher.Ms Hassan said even though household incomes had grown during the past decade, it had failed to keep up living costs.“Families probably need to have a spare $10,000 in the event that the air conditioner blows up, a tree falls down in a storm or other unexpected repairs are necessary,” Ms Hassan said.
INTRODUCTIONSource: National Center on Sexual Exploitation http://endsexualexploitation.org/Pornography is a social toxin that destroys relationships, steals innocence, erodes compassion, breeds violence, and kills love. The issue of pornography is ground zero for all those concerned for the sexual health and wellbeing of our loved ones, communities, and society as a whole. As the following points illustrate, the breadth and depth of pornography’s influence on popular culture has created an intolerable situation that impinges on the freedoms and wellbeing of countless individuals. Young Age of First Exposure: A study of university students found that 93% of boys and 61% of girls had seen Internet pornography during adolescence. The researchers reported that the degree of exposure to paraphilic and deviant sexual activity before age 18 was of “particular concern.”1 Another sample has shown that among college males, nearly 49% first encountered pornography before age 13.2 Pervasive Use: A nationally representative survey found that 64% of young people, ages 13–24, actively seek out pornography weekly or more often.3 A popular tube site reports that in 2015 people watched 4,392,486,580 hours of pornography on its site alone;4 54% of visits to its site occurring via smartphone.5 Eleven pornography sites are among the world’s top 300 most popular Internet sites. The most popular such site, at number 18, outranks the likes of eBay, MSN, and Netflix.6 Infringement on Individual Rights: The pornification of culture (i.e. softcore, hypersexualized imagery) is widespread and evident everywhere, from the grocery store checkout lane to advertising, popular entertainment, unsolicited email, and beyond. It’s becoming increasingly difficult—if not impossible—to live a porn-free life. Both Genders: While hardcore pornography users are typically male, use among younger females use is increasing. Teenage girls and young women are significantly more likely to actively seek out porn than women 25 years old and above.7 Unmanageable at the Individual Level: The pervasive depictions of softcore and hardcore pornography in popular culture, and their easy accessibility via streaming and mobile devises, produce problems and significant risks outside the ability of individuals and families to manage on their own. Private Behavior with Public Consequences/Porn Users Shape Culture: The large-scale private use of hardcore pornography by millions of people has public ramifications. The attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors shaped by pornography use have a profound impact on not only users’ private relationships, but also their professional and social relationships. Pornography use, to varying degrees, shapes the lens by which users view, interact, and construct the world. Drawing from recent, peer-reviewed, research literature, as well as the latest reports and surveys, the research summary below presents evidence supporting the view that pornography constitutes a public health crisis. While independently these studies do not prove that pornography causes harm, taken in totality, the converging evidence overwhelming suggests that pornography is correlated with a broad array of harms that adversely impact the public health of the nation. These include higher incidence of STIs, increased verbal and physical sexual aggression, acceptance of rape myths, risky sexual behaviors among adolescents, reduced impulse control and reckless decision making, increased sexual dysfunction, and more. Like the tobacco industry, the pornography industry has created a public health crisis. However, despite tobacco’s former widespread use and acceptance in American culture, once its harms became apparent, society took action and adopted dramatic new policies to limit the harmful effects of smoking. Similarly we believe that people need to be protected from pornography exposure and made aware of the risks associated with its use.In light of the mounting evidence of harm documented below, we call on the general public, educators, health professionals, corporate executives, and elected officials to recognize pornography as a public health crisis.RESEARCH SUMMARYImpact on Sexual Violence and Exploitation Hardcore Pornography Portrays Paraphilic Disorders and Extreme Sex: Since the 1950s, the distribution and availability of pornography has become increasingly normalized.8 Pornography exposure among college males is now almost universal.9 Boys and men are consuming hardcore pornography, which may include depictions of sex with persons who look like children, teens, scenarios portraying incest, and other paraphilic interests such as sex with animals (i.e. zoophilia), excretory activities (i.e. coprophilia/urophilia), and violence against women, including rape (i.e. biastophilia) and torture (i.e. algolania).10 Today “. . . mainstream commercial pornography has coalesced around a relatively homogenous script involving violence and female degradation.”11 Teaches Users that Women Enjoy Sexual Violence: Analysis of the 50 most popular pornographic videos (those bought and rented most often) found that 88% of scenes contained physical violence, and 49% contained verbal aggression.12 Eighty-seven percent of aggressive acts were perpetrated against women, and 95% of their responses were either neutral or expressions of pleasure.13 Committing Sexual Offenses and Accepting Rape Myths: A meta-analysis of 46 studies reported that the effects of exposure to pornographic material are “clear and consistent,” and that pornography use puts people at increased risk for committing sexual offenses and accepting rape myths.14 Increased Verbal and Physical Aggression: A 2015 meta-analysis of 22 studies from seven countries found that internationally the consumption of pornography was significantly associated with increases in verbal and physical aggression, among males and females alike.15 Increased Female Sexual Victimization: A study of 14- to 19-year-olds found that females who watched pornographic videos were at significantly greater likelihood of being victims of sexual harassment or sexual assault.16 Increased Likelihood of Selling and Buying Sex: A Swedish study of 18-year-old males found that frequent users of pornography were significantly more likely to have sold and bought sex than other boys of the same age.17 Porn Fuels Demand for Sexual Exploitation: Some pornography consumers use pornography to build sexual excitement in advance of purchasing sex from prostituted persons; others seek to reenact pornographic scenes on prostituted persons.18 An analysis of 101 sex buyers, compared to 100 men who did not buy sex, found that sex buyers masturbate to pornography more often than non-sex buyers, masturbate to more types of pornography, and reported that their sexual preferences changed so that they sought more sadomasochistic and anal sex.19 Other research also demonstrates an association between purchase of commercial sex acts and pornography use.20 Interconnectivity of Mainstream, Deviant, and Child Sexual Abuse Images: A survey from a general population of Internet pornography users found that users of pornography depicting sexual abuse of children also consume both hardcore pornography (featuring ostensibly adult performers), as well animal pornography. There were no consumers of child sexual abuse images who only collected child sexual abuse images. 21 o A study examining 231 Swiss men charged in a 2002 case for possession of child sexual abuse images (i.e. child pornography), found that 60% percent also used pornography that depicted sexual acts with animals, excrement, or brutality; 33% consumed at least three or more types of deviant pornography. Researchers also found that those convicted for possessing child sexual abuse images were more likely to subscribe to commercial websites containing legal (according to Swiss law) pornographic material (19% vs. 4%). 22 Pornography is Prostitution for Mass Consumption: The medium by which the prostitution is conveyed—photographs, magazines, books, videos, and the Internet—allows for masses of individuals to derive sexual stimulation and gratification from the acts of prostitution that they portray. Pornography as a Form of Sexual Exploitation: “Pornography may meet the legal definition of trafficking to the extent that the pornographer recruits, entices, or obtains the people depicted in pornography for the purpose of photographing commercial sex acts.”23 Impact on Adolescents Harm to Young Brains: A survey of 813 U.S. teens and young adults (13–25), found that 26% of adolescents aged 13–17 actively seek out pornography weekly or more often.24 Research has demonstrated that children are more susceptible than adults to addictions and to developmental effects on the brain.25 Emotional Bond with Caregivers: A nationally representative survey of youth ages 9–17 reported that online pornography users were significantly more likely to report a poor emotional bond with their caregiver, than adolescents who viewed pornography offline or not at all.26 Women as Sex Objects: Internet pornography is shown to normalize the notion that women are sex objects among both adolescent boys and girls.27 Sexual Uncertainty and Casual Sexual Exploration: More frequent use of sexually explicit Internet material is shown to foster greater sexual uncertainty in the formation of sexual beliefs and values, as well as a shift away from sexual permissiveness with affection to attitudes supportive of uncommitted sexual exploration.28 Sending Sexually Explicit Images: A survey of 4,564 adolescents aged 14– 17 in five European countries, found that viewing Internet pornography is significantly associated with an increased probability of having sent sexual images and messages (sexting) among boys.29 A survey of 617 college freshman found that 30% of participants sent nude pictures at some time during high school; 45% had received nude pictures on their cell phones. The most important motivation for sexting was coercion such as blackmail or threats. About half of all sexting may be coercive.30 Risky Sexual Behaviors: Internet pornography use is linked to increases in problematic sexual activity at younger ages, and a greater likelihood of engaging risky sexual behavior, such as hookups, multiple sex partners, anal sex, group sex, and using substances during sex as young adolescents.31 A recent UK survey found that 44% of males aged 11–16 who viewed pornography reported that online pornography gave them ideas about the type of sex they wanted to try out.32 Physical and Sexual Victimization: A nationally representative survey of pornography use among youth aged 9–17, found that those with increased exposure to Internet pornography were significantly more likely to report physical and sexual victimization.33 Associated with Adolescent Delinquency and Criminal Behavior: In a meta-analysis of eight studies, male adolescent sex offenders reported more exposure to sex or pornography than non-sex offenders.34 A study of sexually reactive children and adolescents (SRCAs) found that those who used pornography compared to those who did not use pornography were more likely to engage in a prominent pattern of lying, a persistent pattern of theft/stealing, to be truant, to frequently con/manipulate others, to engage in arson/fire setting behaviors, to engage in coerced vaginal penetration and forced sexual acts such as oral or digital penetration, to express sexually aggressive remarks (obscenities), and to engage in sex with animals.35 Other research also demonstrates an association between pornography consumption and adolescent delinquent behavior.36 Higher Usage Rates: Research has found that among males the younger their age of first exposure to pornography, the higher their current consumption of pornography, as well as their greater integration of pornography into sexual activity, and less enjoyment of partnered sex.37 Future Use of Deviant Pornography: A 2013 survey of a general population of Internet pornography users revealed that those who intentionally sought pornography at a younger age were significantly more likely to be users of pornography exhibiting the sexual abuse of animals and children.38 Impact on Females Negative Body Image and Pressure to Perform Pornographic Acts: As a result of viewing pornography, women reported lowered body image, criticism from their partners regarding their bodies, increased pressure to perform acts seen in pornographic films, and less actual sex. Men reported being more critical of their partner’s body and less interested in actual sex.39 Acceptance of Rape Myths: Women who were exposed to pornography as children were more likely to accept rape myths and to have sexual fantasies that involved rape.40 Domestic Violence & Sexual Abuse: The use of pornography by batterers significantly increased a battered woman’s odds of being sexually abused. Pornography use alone increased the odds by a factor of almost 2, and the combination of pornography and alcohol increased the odds of sexual abuse by a factor of 3.41 Other research has found that pornography use by batters is associated with learning about sex through pornography, imitation of behaviors seen in pornography, comparison of women to pornography performers, introduction of other sexual partners, filming sexual acts without consent, and the broader culture of pornography (e.g. fetishes).42 Increased Marital Rape: Males who use pornography and go to strip clubs were found to engage in more sexual abuse, stalking, and marital rape than abusers who do not use pornography and go to strip clubs.43 Impact on Males Lower Sexual Satisfaction and Sexual Dysfunction: A 2015 study of online sexual activities among males found 20.3% reported that “one motive for their porn use was to maintain arousal with their partner.” It also found that pornography use was linked to higher sexual desire, but lower overall sexual satisfaction, and lower erectile function.44 Other research has correlated pornography use with “negative effects on partnered sex, decreased enjoyment of sexual intimacy, less sexual and relationship satisfaction.”45 Negative Body Image: A 2015 study found that men’s frequency of pornography use is positively linked to body image insecurity regarding muscularity and body fat, and to increased anxiety in romantic relationships.46 Pornography Induced Erectile Dysfunction: Historically, ED has been viewed as an age-dependent problem, with rates in men ages 18–59 as low as 2–5%.47 In the early 2000s, the Global Study of Sexual Attitudes and Behavior (GSSAB) reported that the ED rate among men aged 40–80 was approximately 13%.48 In 2011, among males aged 18–40 the GSSAB found ED rates of 14-28%.49 This dramatic increase in ED rates among young men coincides with the sharp increase in the availability and accessibility of Internet pornography tube sites.50 o A 2-year longitudinal study of sexually active young males aged 16–21 published in 2016, found that over several checkpoints during the 2 years, they reported: low sexual satisfaction (47.9%) low desire (46.2%) problems in erectile function (45.3%)51 o Another study reported that one in four patients seeking medical help for new onset ED were under 40, with severe ED rates being 10% higher than those in men over 40.52 o A study on men (mean age 36) seeking help for excessive sexual behavior—frequent use of pornography and masturbation—found that ED combined with low desire for partnered sex is a common observation in clinical practice.53 o A study examining subgroups of men struggling with sexual compulsivity, found that among those who reported seven or more hours of pornography viewing (or seven episodes of masturbation) per week, 71% reported sexual dysfunctions, and 33% reported delayed ejaculation.54 o A Cambridge University study that was evenly divided between men with compulsive sexual behavior and those without, found that 84% of those with CSB experienced diminished libido or erectile function in physical relationships with women.55 Correlated to Male Sexual Objectification of Women and Attitudes Supporting Violence Against Women: Among collegiate men, frequency of exposure to men’s lifestyle magazines, reality TV programs that objectify women, and pornography, predicted more objectified cognitions about women and stronger attitudes supportive of violence against women. 56 Risky Behaviors and Other Harms: For males, increased pornography use is correlated with more sex partners, more alcohol use, more binge drinking, greater acceptance of sex outside of marriage for married individuals, greater acceptance of sex before marriage, and less child centeredness during marriage.57 Pornography as Sex Ed: A study of male high school seniors in Sweden found that nearly 70% of those who frequently used pornography reported that pornography made them want to try out what they had seen compared to 42% of boys in a reference group.58 Frequent users of pornography viewed all forms of pornography more often, especially advanced or more deviant forms of pornography including violence and sexual abuse of children and animals.59 Sexual Harassment and Coercion: A study of 804 Italian males and females aged 14 to 19, found that males who viewed pornography were significantly more likely to report having sexually harassed a peer or forcing someone to have sex.60 Impact on the Brain The Research Is In: Since 2011, there have been 26 major studies which reveal pornography use has negative and detrimental impacts on the brain.61 Shrinks Brain: A 2014 study of the brain scans of 64 pornography users found that increased pornography use (i.e. pornography dosage) is linked to decreased brain matter in the areas of the brain associated with motivation and decision-making, and contributed to impaired impulse control and desensitization to sexual reward.62 Thus the study demonstrated that pornography use can produce physical, anatomic change in the brain—a hallmark of addiction.63 Hijacks the Brain’s Reward System: Motivation and reward are regulated by the mesolimbic system. There is ample evidence that the mesolimbic system is activated in response to both substance abuse and natural rewards such as sex.64 Addiction occurs when the pleasure/rewards pathways of the brain are hijacked by drugs such as cocaine or by natural process vital to survival such as eating and sex.65 The constant novelty of Internet pornography, as well as properties such as violation of expectations, anticipation of reward, and the act of seeking (i.e. surfing) stimulate mesolimbic dopamine activity.66 Growing evidence suggests that pornography use hijacks the brain’s reward system in the same way that drug use does.67 The Addiction Gets Worse: Using functional MRI, a 2015 study from Cambridge found that compulsive sexual behavior is characterized by novelty-seeking, conditioning, and habituation to sexual stimuli in males—meaning users need more extreme content over time in order achieve the same level of arousal. The study also identified a dissociation between desiring or wanting but not liking sexually explicit materials—a finding consistent with theories of incentive motivation underlying drug addiction.68 Internet Addiction: Longitudinal research has found that among Internet activities, searching for pornography has the most addictive potential and should be regarded as the most important risk factor for the development of Compulsive Internet Use (also referred to as Internet addiction).69 Impact on Sexually Transmitted Diseases Pornography and STI’s: Pornography use among adult males in America is associated with increased engagement in sexual behaviors that increase the risk of STIs. Internet pornography consumption has been positively associated with having sex with multiple partners, engaging in paid sex, and having had extramarital sex.70 Increased STI’s Among Adolescent Minority Females: Exposure to X-rated movies among Black females 14 to 18 years old was associated with being more likely to have negative attitudes toward using condoms, to have multiple sex partners, to have sex more frequently, to have not used contraception during the last intercourse, to have not used contraception in the past 6 months, to have a strong desire to conceive, and to test positive for chlamydia.71 Impact on Relationships and Sexual Behaviors Earlier Sexual Debut, Multiple Partners, and Risky Sexual Practices: Pornography consumption is linked to initiating sex at an earlier age, multiple sexual partners, more frequent practice of anal sex, use of psychoactive substances, and lack of protection against STIs.72 Bulot, Leurent, and Collier (2015) report that, “All the work done in this area is in fact unanimous in concluding that pornography is a pervasive influence on young people.”73 Casual Sexual Behavior: Longitudinal research has found that pornography exposure was associated with a nearly twofold increase in the odds of casual sexual behavior. This association was found even after controlling for age, ethnicity, religiosity, education, and gender. Casual sex increases the risk of undesirable outcomes such as physical and sexual aggression, STIs, and unwanted pregnancies.74 Dissatisfaction with Partners: Research has demonstrated that the more pornography a man watches, the more likely he is to deliberately conjure images of pornography during sex to maintain arousal, and to experience decreased enjoyment of intimate behaviors with a partner.75 Negative Impact on Marriage Formation: Researchers report that declining rates of marriage formation bring demographic and socio-economic changes that negatively impact society, while marriage formation creates substantial socio-economic improvements. Pornography has been shown to significantly negatively impact marriage formation, and in light robust controls, the effect is likely causal.76 Negative Impact on Marital Quality: A longitudinal study of married couples found that those who used pornography more often reported lower satisfaction with their sex-life and decision-making as a couple. Pornography use was strongly and negatively related to marital quality over time. “The findings provide qualified support for the notion that more frequent pornography viewing—rather than simply being a proxy for the participants’ dissatisfaction with sex-life or marital decision-making—may negatively influence marital quality over time.”77 Extramarital Affairs: A study found that persons who have had an extramarital affair were more than 3 times more apt to have used Internet pornography than ones who had lacked affairs.78 Other research affirms that pornography consumption is associated with more positive attitudes towards extramarital affairs.79 1 Chiara Sabina, Janis Wolak, and David Finkelhor, “The Nature and Dynamics of Internet Pornography Exposure for Youth,” CyberPsychology & Behavior 11, no. 6 (2008):691–693. 2 Chyng Sun, Ana Bridges, Jennifer Johnson, and Matt Ezzell, “Pornography and the Male Sexual Script: An Analysis of Consumption and Sexual Relations,” Archives of Sexual Behavior 45, no. 4 (May, 2016): 983–94. 3 Barna Group, The Porn Phenomenon: The Impact of Pornography in the Digital Age, (Ventura, CA: Josh McDowell Ministry, 2016). 4 Pornhub, “Pornhub’s 2015 Year in Review,” (2015).5 Jonathan Marciano, “Top 300 Biggest Websites: Based on Both Mobile and Desktop Data for the First Time!” Similar Web (July 19, 2016), https://www.similarweb.com/blog/new-website-ranking (accessed July 24, 2016). 6 Ibid.7 Barna Group, “News Conference on Barna’s New Study: ‘The Porn Phenomenon,’” (January 15, 2016), https://www.barna.org/blog/culture-media/barna-group/porn-press-conference#.VrS9OrSJndl (accessed June 27, 2016). 8 Gail Dines, Pornland: How Porn Has Hijacked Our Sexuality, (Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 2010), 1–23. 9 John D. Foubert, Matthew W. Brosi, and R. Sean Bannon, “Effects of Fraternity Men’s Pornography Use on Bystander Intervention, Rape Myth Acceptance and Behavioral Intent to Commit Sexual Assault,” Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity: The Journal of Treatment & Prevention 18, no. 4 (2011): 212–231. 10 Robert Peters, “How Adult Pornography Contributes to Sexual Exploitation of Children” (September 2009); Foubert, ibid; Ana Bridges, Robert Wosnitzer, Erica Scharrer, Chyng Sun, and Rachael Liberman, “Aggression and Sexual Behavior in Best-Selling Pornography Videos: A Content Analysis Update,” Violence Against Women 16, no. 10 (2010): 1065-1085; Gail Dines, ibid. 11 Sun, ibid.12 Ana J. Bridges, Robert Wosnitzer, Erica Scharrer, Chyng Sun, and Rachael Liberman, “Aggression and Sexual Behavior in Best-Selling Pornography Videos: A Content Analysis Update,” Violence against Women 16, no. 10 (2010): 1065–1085. 13 Ibid.14 Elizabeth Paolucci-Oddone, Mark Genuis, and Claudio Violato, “A Meta-Analysis of the Published Research on the Effects of Pornography,” The Changing Family and Child Development, ed. Claudio Violato, Elizabeth Paolucci, and Mark Genuis (Aldershot, England: Ashgate Publishing, 2000), 48–59. 15 Paul J. Wright, Robert S. Tokunaga, and Ashley Kraus, “A Meta-Analysis of Pornography Consumption and Actual Acts of Sexual Aggression in General Population Studies,” Journal of Communication 66, no. 1 (February 2016): 183–205. 16 Silvia Bonino, Silvia Ciairano, Emanuela Rabagliette, and Elena Cattelino, “Use of Pornography and Self-Reported Engagement in Sexual Violence among Adolescents,” European Journal of Developmental Psychology 3, no. 3 (2006):265-288. 17 Carl Göran Svedin, Ingrid Âkerman, and Gisela Priebe, “Frequent Users of Pornography. A Population Based Epidemiological Study of Swedish Male Adolescents,” Journal of Adolescence 34, no. 4 (2011): 779–788. 18 Mimi H. Silbert and Ayala M. Pines, “Pornography and Sexual Abuse of Women,” Sex Roles 10, no. 11/12 (1984): 857–868; Rachel Durchslag and Samir Goswami, Deconstructing the Demand for Prostitution: Preliminary Insights from Interviews with Chicago Men Who Purchase Sex, (Chicago, IL: Chicago Alliance Against Sexual Exploitation, 2008); Victor Malarek, The Johns: Sex for Sale and the Men Who Buy It (New York: NY Arcade Publishing, Inc. 2009). 19 Melissa Farley, Emily Schuckman, Jacqueline M. Golding, Kristen Houser, Laura Jarrett, Peter Qualliotine, Michele Decker, “Comparing Sex Buyers with Men Who Don’t Buy Sex: ‘You can have a good time with the servitude’ vs. ‘You’re supporting a system of degradation.’” Paper 9/8/2016 12 presented at Psychologists for Social Responsibility Annual Meeting July 15, 2011, Boston, MA. San Francisco: Prostitution Research & Education (2011).20 Steven Stack, Ira Wasserman, and Roger Kern, “Adult Social Bonds and Use of Internet Pornography,” Social Science Quarterly 85 (2004): 75–88; Martin A. Monto and Nick McRee, “A Comparison of the Male Customers of Female Street Prostitutes With National Samples of Men,” International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 49, no. 5 (2005): 505–529; Martin A. Monto, “Summary Report for National Institute of Justice Grant #97-IJ-CX-0033 ‘Focusing on the Clients of Street Prostitutes: A Creative Approach to Reducing Violence Against Women’” (October 30, 1999); Durchslag, ibid. 21 Kathryn C. Seigfried-Spellar and Marcus K. Rogers, “Does Deviant Pornography Use Follow a Guttman-like Progression,” Computers in Human Behavior 29 (2013): 1997–2003. 22 Jérôme Endrass, Frank Urbaniok, Lea C. Hammermeister, Christian Benz, Thomas Elbert, Arja Laubacher, and Astrid Rossegger, “The Consumption of Internet Child Pornography and Violent and Sex Offending,” BMC Psychiatry 9, no. 43 (2009). 23 Melissa Farley, Jacqueline M. Golding, Emily Schuckman Matthews, Neil Malamuth, and Laura Jarrett, “Comparing Sex Buyers with Men Who Do Not Buy Sex: New Data on Prostitution and Trafficking.” Journal of Interpersonal Violence, (2015). 24 Barna Group, The Porn Phenomenon: The Impact of Pornography in the Digital Age, (Ventura, CA: Josh McDowell Ministry, 2016). 25 Frances E. Jensen with Amy Ellis Nutt, The Teenage Brain: A Neuroscientist’s Survival Guild to Raising Adolescents and Young Adults, (New York: Harper Collins, 2015); Tamara L. Doremus-Fitzwater, Elena I. Varlinskaya, and Linda P. Spear, “Motivational Systems in Adolescence: Possible Implications for Age Differences in Substance Abuse and Other Risk-Taking Behaviors,” Brain and Cognition 71, no. 1 (2010):114–123. 26 Michele L. Ybarra and Kimberly Mitchell, “Exposure to Internet Pornography among Children and Adolescents: A National Survey,” CyberPsychology & Behavior 8, no. 5 (2005): 473–486. 27 Jochen Peter and Patti Valkenburg, “Adolescent’s Exposure to a Sexualized Media Environment and Their Notions of Women as Sex Objects,” Sex Roles 56 (2007): 381-395; Jane D. Brown and Kelly L. L’Engle, “X-Rated: Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors Associated with U.S. Early Adolescents’ Exposure to Sexually Explicit Media,” Communication Research 36, no. 1 (February 2009): 129-151. 28 Jochen Peter and Patti M. Valkenburg, “Adolescents’ Exposure to Sexually Explicit Internet Material, Sexual Uncertainty, and Attitudes toward Uncommitted Sexual Exploration, Is There a Link?” Communications Research 35, no. 5 (2008): 579–601. 29 Nicky Stanley, Christine Barter, Marsha Wood, Nadia Aghtaie, Cath Larkins, Alba Lanau, and Carolina Ӧerlien, “Pornography, Sexual Coercion and Abuse and Sexting in Young People’s Intimate Relationships: A European Study,” Journal of Interpersonal Violence (2016): 1–26. 30 Elizabeth Englander, Low Risk Associated with Most Teenage Sexting: A Study of 617 18-Year-Olds, (Massachusetts Aggression Reduction Center, 2012). 31 Debra K. Braun-Courville and Mary Rojas, “Exposure to Sexually Explicit Web Sites and Adolescent Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors,” Journal of Adolescent Health 45 (2009): 156–162; Peter and Valkenburg (2007); C. Marston and R. Lewis, “Anal Heterosex Among Young People and Implications for Health Promotion: A Qualitative Study in the UK,” BJM Open 4 (February 4, 2016): 1–6; Emily R. Rothman, Michele R. Decker, Elizabeth Miller, Elizabeth Reed, Anita Raj, and Jay G. Silverman, “Multi-Person Sex among a Sample of Adolescent Female Urban Health Clinic Patients,” Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine 89, no. 1 (2011): 129–137; E. Häggström-Nordin, U. Hanson, and T. Tydén, “Association between Pornography Consumption and Sexual Practices among Adolescents in Sweden,” International Journal of STD & AIDS 16 (2005): 102–107; Svedin, ibid. 32 Elena Martellozzo, Andy Monaghan, Joanna R. Adler, Julia Davidson, Rodolfo Leyva, and Miranda A.H. Horvath, “‘I Wasn’t Sure It Was Normal To Watch It . . .’ A Quantitative and Qualitative Examination of the Impact of Online Pornography on the Values, Attitudes, Beliefs and Behaviours of Children and Young People,” London: Middlesex University (2016), 9/8/2016 13 https://www.mdx.ac.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0021/223266/MDX-NSPCC-OCC-pornography-report.pdf (accessed August 7, 2016).33 Ybarra, ibid.34 Michael C. Seto and Martin L. Lalumière, “What Is So Special About Male Adolescent Sexual Offending? A Review and Test of Explanations through Meta-Analysis,” Psychological Bulletin 136, no. 4 (2010): 526–575. 35 Eileen M. Alexy, Ann W. Burgess, and Robert A. Prentky, “Pornography Use as a Risk Marker for an Aggressive Pattern of Behavior among Sexually Reactive Children and Adolescents,” Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association 14, no. 4 (2009): 442–453. 36 Ybarra, ibid.37 Sun, ibid.38 Seigfried-Spellar, ibid.39 Julie M. Albright, “Sex in America Online: An Exploration of Sex, Marital Status, and Sexual Identity in Internet Sex Seeking and Its Impacts,” Journal of Sex Research 45 (2008): 175–186. 40 Shawn Corne, John Briere, and Lillian M. Esses, “Women’s Attitudes and Fantasies about Rape as a Function of Early Exposure to Pornography,” Journal of Interpersonal Violence 7, no. 4 (1992): 454–461. 41 Janet Hinson Shope, “When Words Are Not Enough: The Search for the Effect of Pornography on Abused Women,” Violence Against Women 10, no. 1 (2004): 56–72. 42 Walter S. DeKeseredy and Amanda Hall-Sanchez, “Adult Pornography and Violence against Women in the Heartland: Results from a Rural Southeast Ohio Study,” Violence against Women (May 2016), 1–20. 43 C. Simmons, P. Lehmann, and S. Collier-Tenison, “Linking Male Use of the Sex Industry to Controlling Behaviors in Violent Relationships: An Exploratory Analysis,” Violence Against Women 14, no. 4 (2008): 406–417. 44 Aline Wéry and Joel Billieux, “Online Sexual Activities: An Exploratory Study of Problematic and Non-Problematic Usage Patterns in a Sample of Men,” Computers in Human Behavior 56 (2016): 257–266. 45 Brian Y. Park, Gary Wilson, Jonathan Berger, Matthew Christman, Bryn Reina, Frank Bishop, Warren P. Klam, and Andrew P. Doan, “Is Internet Pornography Causing Sexual Dysfunctions? A Review with Clinical Reports,” Behavioral Sciences 6, no. 17 (2016): 1–25. 46 Wéry, ibid.47 Park, ibid.48 Alfredo Nicolosi, Edward O. Laumann, Dale B. Glasser, Edson D. Moreira, Jr., Anthony Paik, and Clive Gingell, “Sexual Behavior and Sexual Dysfunctions after Age 40: The Global Study of Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors,” Urology 64 (2004): 991–997. 49 Ivan Landripet and Aleksandar Šulhofer, “Is Pornography Use Associated with Sexual Difficulties and Dysfunctions among Younger Heterosexual Men?” The Journal of Sexual Medicine 12 (2015): 1136–1139. 50 Park, ibid.51 Lucia F. Sullivan, Lori A. Brotto, E. Sandra Byers, Jo Ann Majerovich, and Judith A. Wuest, “Prevalence and Characteristics of Sexual Functioning among Sexually Experienced Middle to Late Adolescents,” The Journal of Sexual Medicine 11 (2014): 630–641. 52 Paolo Capogrosso, et al., “One Patient Out of Four with Newly Diagnosed Erectile Dysfunction Is a Young Man—Worrisome Picture from the Everyday Clinical Practice,” The Journal of Sexual Medicine 10 (2013): 1833–1841. 53 Verena Klein, Tanja Jurin, Peer Briken, and Aleksandar Šulhofer, “Erectile Dysfunction, Boredom, and Hypersexuality among Couple Men from Two European Countries,” The Journal of Sexual Medicine 12, no. 11 (2015):2160–2167. 54 Katherine S. Sutton, Natalie Stratton, Jennifer Pytyck, Nathan J. Kolla, and James M. Cantor, “Patient Characteristics by Type of Hypersexuality Referral: A Quantitative Chart Review of 115 Consecutive Male Cases,” Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy 41, no. 6 (2015): 563–580. 9/8/2016 14 55 Valerie Voon, Thomas B. Mole, Paula Banca, Laura Porter, Laurel Morris, Simon Mitchell, Tatyana R. Lapa, et al., “Neural Correlates of Sexual Cue Reactivity in Individuals with and without Compulsive Sexual Behaviors,” PLOS ONE 9, no. 7 (2014):1–10. 56 Paul J. Wright and Robert S. Tokunaga, “Men’s Objectifying Media Consumption, Objectification of Women, and Attitudes Supportive of Violence against Women,” Archives of Sexual Behavior 45, no. 4 (2016): 955–64. 57 Jason S. Carroll, Laura L. Padilla-Walker, Larry J. Olson, Chad D. Olson, Carolyn McNamara Barry, Stephanie D. Madsen, “Generation XXX: Pornography Acceptance and Use Among Emerging Adults,” Journal of Adolescent Research 23, no. 1 (2008): 6–30; Svedin, ibid. 58 Svedin, ibid.59 Ibid.60 Bonino, ibid.61 Your Brain on Porn, “Brain Studies on Porn Users,” (2014) http://yourbrainonporn.com/brain-scan-studies-porn-users (accessed July 13, 2016). 62 Simone Kühn and Jürgen Gallinat, “Brain Structure and Functional Connectivity Associated with Pornography Consumption,” JAMA Psychiatry 71, no. 7 (2014): 827–834. 63 Donald L. Hilton, Jr., and Clark Watts, “Pornography Addiction: A Neuroscience Perspective,” Surgical Neurology International 2, no. 19 (2011). 64 K.S. Frohmader, J. Wiskerke, R.A, Wise, M.N. Lehman, and L.M. Coolen, “Methamphetamine Acts on Subpopulations of Neurons Regulating Sexual Behavior in Male Rats,” Neuroscience 166, (2010): 771–784. 65 Hilton, ibid.66 Park, ibid.67 Kühn, ibid; Shane W. Kraus, Valerie Voon, and Marc N. Potenza, “Neurobiology of Compulsive Sexual Behavior: Emerging Science,” Neuropsychopharmacology 41 (2016): 385-386; D.L Wallace, V. Vialou, T.L. Carle-Florence, S. Chakravarty, A. Kumar, D.L. Graham, T.A. Green, et al., “The Influence of DeltaFosB in the Nucleus Accumbens on Natural Reward-Related Behavior,” Journal of Neuroscience 8, no. 28 (2008):10272-10277. 68 Voon, ibid.69 G.J. Meerkerk, R. J. J. M. V. D. Eijnden, and H.F.L. Garresten, “Predicting Compulsive Internet Use: It’s All about Sex!” CyberPsychology & Behavior 91, no. 9 (2006): 95–103. 70 Paul J. Wright and Ashley K. Randall, “Internet Pornography Exposure and Risky Sexual Behavior among Adult Males in the United States,” Computers in Human Behavior 28 (2012): 1410–1416. 71 Gina M. Wingood, Ralph J. DiClemente, Kathy Harrington, Suzy Davies, Edward W. Hook, and M. Kim Oh, “Exposure to X-Rated Movies and Adolescent’s Sexual and Contraceptive-Related Attitudes and Behaviors,” Pediatrics 107, no. 5 (2001): 1116–1119. 72 C. 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Sexual Socialization, Selective Exposure, and the Moderating Role of Unhappiness,” Journal of Media Psychology 24, no. 2 (2012): 67–76. 75 Chyng Sun, Ana Bridges, Jennifer Johnason, and Matt Ezzell, “Pornography and the Male Sexual Script: An Analysis of Consumption and Sexual Relations,” Archives of Sexual Behavior 45, no. 4 (2014: 983–994. 76 Michael Malcolm and George Naufal, “Are Pornography and Marriage Substitutes for Young men?” Eastern Economic Journal 42 (2016): 317–334. 9/8/2016 15 77 Samuel L. Perry, “Does Viewing Pornography Reduce Marital Quality Over Time? Evidence from Longitudinal Data,” Archives of Sexual Behavior, (2016). 78 Steven Stack, Ira Wasserman, and Roger Kern, “Adult Social Bonds and Use of Internet Pornography,” Social Science Quarterly 85 (2004): 75–88. 79 Paul J. Wright, Robert S. Tokunaga, and Soyoung Bae, “More Than a Dalliance? 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Clarence R. Bowman, 84, of Greensburg, formerly of Laurel, passed away on Friday July 19, 2019. Clarence was born October 29, 1934 in Franklin County, Indiana the son of John “Woodie” and Sarah Pelfrey Bowman. Clarence worked for National Metal in Connersville, Indiana.Clarence is survived by; daughters, Julie Cox and Linda (Tim) Cline; and son, Robert Bowman. 15 Grandchildren and 4 Great GrandchildrenClarence was preceded in death by his father, John “Woodie” Bowman; mother, Sarah Bowman; son in law, Bruce Cox; sisters, Gertrude Bowman, Lydia Bowman Howery, Suda Bowman Thompson, Mary Lou Bowman Forbes, Bessie Bowman Edington; brothers, James Bowman, Willy Bowman, John Henry Bowman, and George Bowman.A Graveside service will be held at the Hopewell Cemetery, 9573 S. County Road 700 E., Rushville, Indiana 46173 on Thursday, July 25, 2019 at 1:00 pm. David Lawson Hersley will be officiating. Burial will follow. Memorial contributions in Clarence’s memory may be made to the Family. Online condolences can be made to the family at www.gilliland-howe.com