Shape-shifting sheets automatically fold into multiple shapes (w/ Video) More information: by Weina Wu and Zhong You, A solution for folding rigid tall shopping bags, Proceedings of the Royal Society A, Published online before print March 30, 2011, doi:10.1098/rspa.2011.0120 This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. You also points out that if a cardboard box could be constructed in the same fashion as the tall bag, that it would render obsolete the need to remove the bottom (or top for that matter) of the box when folding it up to make it flat; a feat that would save shippers and others who use cardboard boxes as a part of their business, a lot of time and money.According to Demaine, the real goal of origami engineers is to figure out a way to apply rigid folding techniques to bigger, real world type objects, such as buildings, or appliances, so that they could be folded up and put away when not in use. Explore further (PhysOrg.com) — Origami, the ancient Japanese art of folding objects in simple, yet complicated ways, has in recent years been applied to various engineering challenges, such as how to fold up a solar array for transport to outer-space where it can be easily unfolded before use.
Explore further “A nanoimprint method has already been achieved in nanopatterning with a high resolution using negative type photoresist,” Kosei Ueno tells PhysOrg.com. Ueno is a scientist at Hokkaido University in Sapporo, Japan, and associated with PRESTO. “However, some problems remain with the negative type photoresist.” This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Hot off the press: Nanoscale Gutenberg-style printing Ueno is part of a group, including Satoaki Takabatake, Ko Onishi, Hiroko Itoh, Yoshiaki Nishijima, and Hiroaki Misawa, working on lithography using positive type photoresist. “The positive type photoresist is ideal,” Ueno says. “We show nanopatterning with single nanometer resolution on positive type photoresist film for the first time.” The results of these efforts can be seen in Applied Physics Letters: “Homogeneous nano-patterning using plasmon-assisted photolithography.”Up until now, one of the major problems with near-field lithography has been that nanopatterns on a photoresist film have been unable to reflect the patterns on a photomask with the desired nanoscale accuracy. Because of the near-field intensity profile, the nanopatterns fabricated using lithography can be shallow – and dependent on exposure dose. The technique demonstrated by Ueno and his colleagues can accurately fabricate deep nanopatterns, enhancing the use of near-field lithography.“My current scientific interests are the fabrication and optical characterization of gold nanostructures defined with sub-nanometer precision,” Ueno explains. Indeed, this nano-patterning technique makes use of gold as part of the plasmon-assisted system. Nanostructured photomasks were coated with gold film, created with the technique known as electron beam lithography. “Using this method, metallic nanopatterns as well as semiconductor nanopatterns can be formed through the etching process,” Ueno says. In addition to being able to fabricate different nanopatterns reflected onto a photomask, the group was able to create precise nanopatterns suitable for a lift-off process, due to the use of positive photoresist film. The patterns created using negative photoresist are not usually suitable for lift-off.Ueno and his colleagues think that this new lithography technique can be used to replace the current nanoimprint technology that makes use of negative photoresist. Among the possible future applications of this technique might even be in telecommunications. “We could apply the nanostructures created to the waveguide for telecom.” Indeed, the ability to lift-off with this lithography technique could probably provide waveguide structures for a number of applications in the future.Right now, this fabrication process requires direct contact with the positive photoresit film that is spin-coated onto a substrate of glass. The next step, says Ueno, is to develop a system that does not require direct contact. “The development of the 10 nanomater-node photolithography system without contact exposure is planned according to utilizing the directional scattering components of light coupled with the radiation mode of plasmon resonance as an exposure source,” he explains.If this technique gains widespread acceptance, there is a good possibility that it could be quite useful going forward. The shallowness and lack of complete precision at the nanoscale using negative photoresist means that this alternative might be attractive. The ability to create deeper patterns, and to perform the lift-off process, using positive photoresist is a step forward in nanopatterning. Citation: More precise method of nanopatterning (2011, August 4) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-08-precise-method-nanopatterning.html More information: “Homogeneous nano-patterning using plasmon-assisted photolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 011107 (2011); doi:10.1063/1.3606505
Photograph of the Saccade Mirror. Image: University of Tokyo This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. (Phys.org) — University of Japan researchers have worked on a camera system that tracks fast-moving objects in realtime, automatically keeping fast moving objects centered. The system can track fast-moving objects with high accuracy, called “amazing.” A video demo has been made that reveals their success. This is a pan-tilt system that keeps an object at the center of the field. The researchers started work based on a challenge they recognized in the broadcast of major sports events such as the World Cup and games at the Olympics, where videos that are powerful and of the highest quality are in demand. In reality, though, they call attention to a number of limitations in techniques being used to capture the games. “It is often hard for camera operators to keep tracking their camera’s direction on a dynamic object,” they wrote, such as the player or the ball. Shooting has been limited either to moving the camera’ gaze slowly with a wide angle of view or inaccurately controlling the gaze. “Super slow and close-up videos of the remarkable player or the ball are thought to be especially quite valuable. However, camera operators have not been able to do that.” Carrying out their work at Ishikawa Oku Laboratory, the team worked out a camera system that can track fast-moving objects with something described as a high-speed gaze control device Two mirrors, one pan, one tilt, can move sixty degrees in approximately 3.5 milliseconds. These mirrors do the tracking realtime, bouncing images back to a stationary high-speed camera. The 1ms Auto Pan-Tilt system, as the system is named, gets its 1ms designation because it uses a 1,000 frame-per-second vision targeting system. Mirrors react to changes in the subject’s speed or trajectory in no more than 3.5 milliseconds, which is the amount of time required for either of them to move a full 60 degrees, their panning and tilting limit.Their work does not signify a first in pant-tilt camera systems development. The researchers do, however, spell out where their work has an edge. “To control the camera’s gaze with millisecond order in real time is difficult. The main reason is the method of controlling the gaze. A general pan/tilt camera is mounted on a rotational base with two-axis actuators. The actuators must control both the base and the camera. For millisecond-order control, the weight of the rotating parts must be reduced as much as possible”. In their method, the camera is fixed and their gaze-control device using rotational mirrors is installed next to the camera, controlling the camera’s gaze with use of the two mirrors. Citation: 1ms pan-tilt camera system tracks the flying balls (w/ Video) (2012, July 15) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-07-1ms-pan-tilt-camera-tracks-balls.html More information: www.k2.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp/mvf/Sac … rFullHD/index-e.html Auto Pan-Tilt image sequence of a pingpong game. (500fps, Full-HD). Image: University of Tokyo Explore further An easily predictable application would, as the researchers suggest, be for use in televised sports, where the camera used in the system shoots in full HD at 500 frames per second. Another application could be for science research in shooting fast-moving objects such as birds, insects, or aircraft.Team members behind the development are Kohei Okumura, Hiromasa Oku and Masatoshi Ishikawa. © 2012 Phys.org Sony develops ‘IPELA Engine’ capable of an industry-first 130db wide dynamic range in Full HD quality
Upon the discovery of a viral DNA and RNA in ancient caribou feces, researchers reconstituted the viral DNA genome to test whether it might infect plants. Nicotiana benthamiana plants inoculated with the ancient viral DNA displayed evidence of infection including replication of viral DNA in inoculated leaves (orange arrow) and newly emerging leaves (white arrow). Credit: Li-Fang Chen (Phys.org) —Eric Delwart of the Blood Systems Research Institute in San Francisco and colleagues have found two 700-year-old viral sequences in frozen caribou dung in an arctic ice patch. The researchers isolated part of a viral RNA genome and the complete genome of a DNA virus. They infected living plants with the DNA virus. The study appears in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. © 2014 Phys.org Explore further Scientists don’t know much about how viruses evolve. Understanding the structure of ancient viruses would increase knowledge of virus evolution. However, scientists have sequenced only a small number of ancient viruses. Reconstructing ancient viruses is difficult because they change very rapidly, making it hard to see how new sequences are related to one another. In addition, the nucleic acid content of ancient viruses can degrade quickly.In a quest to find well preserved ancient viruses, Delwart and his team analyzed layers of caribou feces in a 4,000-year-old ice patch in Canada’s Selwyn Mountains. When examining nucleic acids in frozen fecal pellets extracted from a 700-year-old ice layer, they identified two sets of well preserved viral sequences.One of these was part of the genome of an RNA virus, which the researchers identified as belonging to the insect-infecting genus Cripavirus. They think caribou may have ingested insects infected with the virus. Insects attracted to the caribou or the feces may also have deposited the virus on the feces and the surrounding snow.Delwart’s team was able to reconstruct the entire genome of a DNA virus from the other viral sequence. This virus did not closely resemble any modern sequenced virus. However, the team discovered distant relationships with a group of plant-infecting viruses called geminiviruses and with gemycircularviruses, found in dragonflies, fungi and animal feces. An ice core containing ancient caribou feces. For thousands of years, caribou gathered on ice patches to escape summer heat and insects. The caribou feces, which contain caribou DNA, digested plants, and viruses, were frozen within layers of ice, enabling researchers to detect the genomes of ancient viruses. Credit: Brian Moorman Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Plants can ‘switch off’ virus DNA Subarctic ice patch in the Selwyn Mountains in the Northwest Territories of Canada. Alpine ice patches are unique repositories of archaeological artifacts and biological specimens that accumulate in ice layers deposited over thousands of years. Credit: Thomas D. Andrews More information: Preservation of viral genomes in 700-y-old caribou feces from a subarctic ice patch, PNAS, Terry Fei Fan Ng, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1410429111AbstractViruses preserved in ancient materials provide snapshots of past viral diversity and a means to trace viral evolution through time. Here, we use a metagenomics approach to identify filterable and nuclease-resistant nucleic acids preserved in 700-y-old caribou feces frozen in a permanent ice patch. We were able to recover and characterize two viruses in replicated experiments performed in two different laboratories: a small circular DNA viral genome (ancient caribou feces associated virus, or aCFV) and a partial RNA viral genome (Ancient Northwest Territories cripavirus, or aNCV). Phylogenetic analysis identifies aCFV as distantly related to the plant-infecting geminiviruses and the fungi-infecting Sclerotinia sclerotiorum hypovirulence-associated DNA virus 1 and aNCV as within the insect-infecting Cripavirus genus. We hypothesize that these viruses originate from plant material ingested by caribou or from flying insects and that their preservation can be attributed to protection within viral capsids maintained at cold temperatures. To investigate the tropism of aCFV, we used the geminiviral reverse genetic system and introduced a multimeric clone into the laboratory model plant Nicotiana benthamiana. Evidence for infectivity came from the detection of viral DNA in newly emerged leaves and the precise excision of the viral genome from the multimeric clones in inoculated leaves. Our findings indicate that viral genomes may in some circumstances be protected from degradation for centuries. Citation: Scientists resurrect 700-year-old viruses (2014, October 28) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-10-scientists-resurrect-year-old-viruses.html To learn more about the DNA virus, the researchers introduced it to the plant Nicotiana benthamiana, which scientists often use as a model when studying the infectivity of cloned geminiviruses. The virus replicated itself in inoculated as well as newly emerging leaves, evidence of infection. However, the infected plants did not develop any disease symptoms. The researchers suggest this could be because Nicotiana benthamiana is not the ideal host for this virus. Delwart’s team believes that caribou ingested the DNA virus when eating plants. Earlier studies have shown that viruses can remain infectious after passing through the digestive tracts of animals that have eaten virus-infected plants, insects or animals.The researchers believe that as climate change speeds up the melting of arctic ice, more viral particles, which might remain infectious, could escape into the environment.
PausePlay% buffered00:0000:00UnmuteMuteDisable captionsEnable captionsSettingsCaptionsDisabledQuality0SpeedNormalCaptionsGo back to previous menuQualityGo back to previous menuSpeedGo back to previous menu0.5×0.75×Normal1.25×1.5×1.75×2×Exit fullscreenEnter fullscreen Vigilant male titi, standing against a tree. Credit: Geoffrey Mesbahi Citation: Titi monkeys use probabilistic predator calls to alert others in their group (2019, May 16) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-05-titi-monkeys-probabilistic-predator-group.html Journal information: Science Advances PausePlay% buffered00:0000:00UnmuteMuteDisable captionsEnable captionsSettingsCaptionsDisabledQuality0SpeedNormalCaptionsGo back to previous menuQualityGo back to previous menuSpeedGo back to previous menu0.5×0.75×Normal1.25×1.5×1.75×2×Exit fullscreenEnter fullscreen Explore further © 2019 Science X Network PausePlay% buffered00:0000:00UnmuteMuteDisable captionsEnable captionsSettingsCaptionsDisabledQuality0SpeedNormalCaptionsGo back to previous menuQualityGo back to previous menuSpeedGo back to previous menu0.5×0.75×Normal1.25×1.5×1.75×2×Exit fullscreenEnter fullscreen Play A male titi monkey calling to a tayra on the ground. Credit: Geoffrey Mesbahi More information: Mélissa Berthet et al. Titi monkeys combine alarm calls to create probabilistic meaning, Science Advances (2019). DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aav3991 Play A male titi monkey calling to an oncilla in the canopy. Credit: Geoffrey Mesbahi A team of researchers with the University of Neuchâtel in Switzerland and the University of St Andrews in the U.K., has found evidence of titi monkeys using probabilistic predator calls to alert others in their group to the presence of different kinds of danger. In their paper published in the journal Science Advances, the group describes their study of several groups of titi monkeys in the wild and what they found. Play A male titi monkey calling to an unknown human observer. Credit: Geoffrey Mesbahi PausePlay% buffered00:0000:00UnmuteMuteDisable captionsEnable captionsSettingsCaptionsDisabledQuality0SpeedNormalCaptionsGo back to previous menuQualityGo back to previous menuSpeedGo back to previous menu0.5×0.75×Normal1.25×1.5×1.75×2×Exit fullscreenEnter fullscreen Field study shows titi monkeys convey both location and predator type with vocal alarms Play A female titi monkey calling to a predator on the ground. Credit: Geoffrey Mesbahi Titi monkeys are small, social monkeys native to South America. They survive mainly by eating fruit, but also consume other vegetation and even small animals occasionally. They also serve as food for a wide range of predators, which has led to the evolution of warning systems. In this new effort, the researchers focused on the black-fronted titi monkeys living in Brazil. Prior studies have shown that their warning system has evolved to the point that individuals can tell others if they have spotted a flying predator (by giving an A call) or a ground predator (by giving a B call). Interestingly, prior research has also shown that they can mix their calls if needed, for instance, if a raptor lands on the ground, or a terrestrial predator climbs into the trees. In this new effort, the researchers have found that the warning calls of the titi monkeys are even more complex than previously thought.To learn more about the warning calls of the titi monkeys, the researchers ventured into their natural forest habitat and observed six families of them as they responded to decoy threats—stuffed predators the researchers placed in watchable locations. They not only recorded the calls the monkeys made, but also noted where they were looking when they made them and when the others listened to them.The researchers found that warning messages were encoded with information based on the proportion of call types. They suggest this indicates that probabilistic meaning was involved in the calls, which allowed the monkeys to add more information for others who were listening. The researchers suggest their findings could lead to better understanding whether human speech evolved from similar types of communications. PausePlay% buffered00:0000:00UnmuteMuteDisable captionsEnable captionsSettingsCaptionsDisabledQuality0SpeedNormalCaptionsGo back to previous menuQualityGo back to previous menuSpeedGo back to previous menu0.5×0.75×Normal1.25×1.5×1.75×2×Exit fullscreenEnter fullscreen Play A male titi monkey spots a tayra on the ground, calls and mobs. Credit: Geoffrey Mesbahi This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
‘I’ve been attached to colours ever since I can remember. Not a specific one, just the fact that they change your opinion and outlook of the ordinary,’ quips Tulika Mohan.The 14-year-old painter has created a collection of 14 paintings for an exhibition titled Colours in Progress. ‘All my artworks started with something and are still continuing. I started out with oil but later moved to acrylics since the former took longer to dry,’ said Tulika.All her paintings are marked by a plethora of colours over the canvas. ‘ I am not partial to any particular colour. I believe all the colours have a story to tell,’ added the ninth grade student. Priced between Rs 4,000- Rs 20,000, the exhibition’s sale proceedings will be donated to Friendicoes SECA, an NGO actively involved in animal rescue. ‘My mother gave me a choice to donate all the earnings to the charity of my choice, so I decided to donate all the money to them,’ she says.DETAILAt: Experimental Art Gallery, Core 6, India Habitat Centre, Lodhi RoadOn Till: 25 November Timings: 11am to 7pm
You can now book a rail ticket online and get it delivered at home where the payment can be made. Initiating this “cash on delivery” (CoD) system rail ticketing, IRCTC is targeting those customers who are reluctant to use their credit or debit cards as well as those who don’t have net-banking facility.“One has to just book the ticket online and payments will be made at the time of delivery of tickets,” said a senior IRCTC official involved with the project.This scheme has been launched on pilot basis and the service will be available in more than 200 cities initially. Customers can book a ticket 5 days prior to commencement of journey.While Rs 40 will be charged for the delivery of each Sleeper Class ticket, Rs 60 will be charged for an AC class ticket. Anduril Technologies through their website and their App – BookMyTrain.com is authorised for providing CoD services.
Kolkata: In a stride towards reducing the electricity bill and curbing pollution, the Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC) has decided to use solar power for electricity production in the municipal markets in the city.There are 46 markets in the city under the aegis of KMC and the civic body has decided to kick off the solar lighting project from Lake Market and Gariahat Market in South Kolkata.A senior official of the civic body said, “We have already started the process of introducing solar power in these two markets. A budget of Rs 2.5 crore has been earmarked for it.” The matter will soon be placed for approval at the member Mayor in Council (MMiC) meeting, which is the decision making body of KMC. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsSolar power and renewable energy expert Santipada Gon Chowdhury said that there is reasonable amount of space in these two markets for installing solar panels. “We are hopeful that power bill will come down reasonably following this,” Gon Chowdhury said.Solar grids with capacity of 200 kilowatt each will be created in these two markets. However, normal electric connection will continue for sometime even after fitting the solar panels.Solar power has already been introduced by KMC in a number of areas in the city like Deshapriya Park, College Square, Maddox Square, Jatin Das Park, Deshbandhu Park etc and the electricity bills have reduced considerably. The civic body saves around Rs 8,000 a month on electricity in the areas.
Kolkata: With cancellation of the meeting between Jomi Jibika Bastutantra O Paribesh Raksha Committee in Bhangar and highest levels of the state government, the District Magistrate has been entrusted with the job.The District Magistrate visited Bhangar II on Monday afternoon to oversee the developmental projects taken up in the area and to ensure that the work progresses fast.There was a meeting scheduled to take place at Nabanna. Members of the committee, that had been protesting against setting up of the power grid sub-station in Bhangar for quite some time, was supposed to meet Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee. Sovandeb Chattopadhyay, the state Power minister and other concerned officials were also supposed to be present there but unfortunately it got cancelled at the last moment and the District Magistrate was entrusted with the job. It is learnt that senior officials of the district went to Bhangar to take necessary steps so that development projects in the area are undertaken without any delay. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsSenior officials held meeting with their counterparts at the block level. It is learnt that the committee had placed certain demands like strengthening of a stretch of a road at Polerhat, arsenic-free water in areas including Machibhanga and Khamarait, etc.Concerned officials of the state Public Works Department (PWD) were present along with senior officials of the district to chalk out a plan to ensure fast completion of the projects.More stress has been given for development activities in the past one month and camps were organised to ensure proper distribution of caste certificates and residential certificates. The steps taken up by the government is helping to build confidence among the locals of the area.It is learnt that the meeting between members of the committee and the District Magistrate would be taking place soon in which there would be further discussion on different issues related to Bhangar.